Aktobe, also Aktyubinsk (KAZ. Aktobe) is a town in Western Kazakhstan, in its European part, the administrative center of Aktobe region.
One of the largest industrial, business and cultural centers of the country.
Located on the left Bank of the river Ilek river — the left tributary of the Ural river in the Central part of the under-Ural plateau, which is a plain height 250-400 m
The boundary between Asia and Europe
In the second half of the 20th century, it was customary to conduct the border between Europe and Asia Мугоджарам to the origins of R. Emba, then along the Emba river to the Caspian sea. Previously (before the end of the 1950s) border of Europe within Kazakhstan is carried out on the riverbed R. Ural.
In April-may 2010 expedition of the Russian geographical society came to the conclusion that the border of Europe should be conducted Мугоджарам, on the edge of the Caspian lowland, where the East-European plain ends and pass Western slopes of the plateau Ustyurt, that is, more to the South than it is now considered. To date the opinion of the group of scientists of the Russian geographical society has not passed the evaluation of such international organization as the international geographical Union.
Thus, the Western part of Aktobe oblast is in Europe. The widespread opinion that the Aktobe — the easternmost city in the European part of Kazakhstandoes not correspond to reality, because the East of Aktobe in the European part of Kazakhstan there are 5 cities: Alga, Zhem, Kandyagash, Khromtau, Emba.
The city was founded on the site of the fortress Aktobe, founded in 1869 годфлигель-de-camp to the king’s court Colonel Borg to ensure the protection of the inner part of Orenburg region from raids and predation Kyrgyz Small Horde. Aktobe Kazakh means white hill (AK — white, төбе — hill).
Fertile soil and an excellent location subsequently attract here many immigrants from different parts of the Russian Empire. The first General plan of building was designed in 1874. The settlement was divided into original microdistricts: Kurmysh, Tatarskaya Sloboda, Otorvanovka. The first street called Garnizonnaya, Fortress, Orenburg, Iletskaya, George. In 1890 near already lived civilians strengthening began to settle Kazakhs. In 1891 the garrison strengthening of Aktobe was transformed into the district city of Aktyubinsk Turgai region. In the early XX century has passed through Aktyubinsk railway Orenburg-Tashkent, which has given a new push to development of economy of the city.
on March 10, 1932 Aktobe became the center of Aktobe region. may 3, 1962 was formed West-Kazakhstan region, which includes the Aktobe oblast (center — Aktyubinsk), Ural region (center of Uralsk and Гурьевскую region (centre — Guryev), with the center of the region, in Aktyubinsk. on 1 December 1964 West Kazakhstan edge abolished. In 1977 Aktyubinsk became the centre of the West Kazakhstan railway. March 11, 1999 by the decree of the President of Kazakhstan transcription of the name of the city of Aktobe in the Russian language was changed to the city of Aktobe