Alma-Ata — History

[From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia]

Alma-ATA, Almaty (KAZ. Almaty; until 1921 — the right; in the middle ages — Almaty is the largest city in Kazakhstan, known as the «southern Capital». The official population of the city is 1.4 million people. Unofficially (including migrant workers) — over 2 million people.

According to the ancient monuments, discovered by archeologists on the territory of modern Alma-ATA, one can judge that this area has long been inhabited by nomadic and полуоседлыми tribes. The most characteristic monuments of this region are the burial mounds of the Scythian VI-III centuries BC. the most major of which the height up to 20 m and the diameter of the base of more than 100 meters located on the banks of the rivers Bolshaya and Malaya Almatinka, Есентая (Весновки), Aksai. At the present time the majority of the burial mounds were buried under the residential area of the city[26].

From the Scythian tribes of the Usuns judging by the finds of archaeologists (sickles, зернотерки, the simplest irrigation systems and other) were familiar with agriculture and shoals of permanent settlements.

The territory of Semirechye consistently included in the West-Turkic, Тюргешский and Karluk kaganates, of the state of Karakhanids. When карлуках in the foothill strip of Zailiysky Alatau began to appear settled agricultural settlements in the places of permanent winter (кыстау) and the city as a rate of the nomadic nobility.

In VIII-X centuries on the territory of modern Almaty there were a few small settlements, one of which allegedly was called Almaty (Almaty)[27] and was on the Great Silk road[28].

In the beginning of XIII century, the area of Alma-ATA, as all of the Semirechye, was subjected to the Mongolian conquest. The events of that time were described famous statesman of Zahir al-DIN Muhammad Babur, in his memoirs, Alma-ATA named among the ruined cities. In the sources, describing the events of the XIV century, the city is called Almalyk. So, seref-адДин Йезди, describing the campaign of Timur in Могулистан in the year 1390, he writes that тимуридское army moved from Tashkent to Issyk-Kul, then to Kok-Tobe, passed Almalyk and then through the Karatal on the Irtysh[29] by the end of The XVI century from Almaty there was only a small part, in which lived the Kazakhs kind of Dulat of the Senior Zhuz.[30].

The beginning of the modern city was inaugurated on February 4, 1854, when the Russian government it was decided to build on the left Bank of the Malaya Almatinka river military fortification.

From the middle of 1855, in the strengthening of Russian settlers began to arrive. In 1859, sent from St. Petersburg geodesist Golubev pointed to the Right point, and this is the place for the first time appeared on the maps of the world. on April 11, 1867, the Faithful city has become the center of Semirechenskaya oblast as part of the Turkestan General-governorship. on July 13, 1867, was established Семиреченское Cossack army. may 28, 1887 a strong Verny earthquake, which killed 322, was destroyed 1798-brick houses. Some buildings of that period have been preserved and are now monuments of history, architecture and are protected by the state. In memory of the tragedy of the citizens put the chapel, which was demolished in 1927[30].

According to the census of 1897 in the city of the Faithful was 22 744[31] residents (12344 men and 10400 women). Distribution of population by mother tongue in 1897[31]: Russian — 63,8 %, таранчи (илийские Uighurs) — 8.6 % of the Kirgiz-кайсаки (Kazakhs) — 8.2 percent, Sary — 6,9 %, the Chinese — 5,3 %, the Tatars — 5,3 %.

In Верненском the County as a whole which included and the city Faithful in 1897 lived 285 059 man, population distribution by mother tongue was as follows[32]: Kirgiz-кайсаки (Kazakhs) — 67,6 %, Russians (including великоросов, малоросов and Belarusians) — 15,8 %, таранчи (илийские Uighurs) — 11,4 %, Sary — 2,6 %, the Tatars — 0,9 %, the Chinese — 0,8 %, черемисцы (Mari) — 0.26 %of

On the eve of 1913, in the city there were more than 41 thousand people, there were 59 industrial enterprises[33].

In 1918, in the Right Soviet power was established. The city with the area became part of the Turkestan autonomy (Tatarstan), part of the RSFSR. on February 5, 1921, it was decided to rename the Faithful in Alma-ATA in the ancient name of the area: Almaty — «Apple». on April 3, 1927, from Kyzylorda in Alma-ATA, transferred the capital of the Казакской Autonomous Republic within the RSFSR. This was an additional impetus to the intensive development. Since 1936 (from the moment of formation of the Kazakh SSR, Alma-ATA was the capital of the first Kazakh SSR, and then and independent Kazakhstan.

After 1941, thanks to the mass evacuation of the factories and workers from the European part of the USSR during the great Patriotic war, Alma-ATA of administrative-trade item with пригранично-security purpose and underdeveloped industry has become one of the largest industrial centers of the Soviet Union. Special role in this process played the location of the city, who was in the rear. For 1941-1945 years, the industrial potential of the city has increased in times. The economically active population of the city increased from 104 thousand people in 1919 to 365 thousand in 1968. In 1967 in the city there were 145 enterprises, and the major part of them — enterprises of light and food industry, which several distinguished the city from a typical Soviet bias towards heavy industry and the production of the means of production. The main industries are food (36 % of the gross industrial output), based largely on the local abundant fruit and vegetable raw materials, and light industry (31 %). Main plants and enterprises of food industry: problems, flour-and-cereals (with macaroni factory), milk, sparkling wines, плодоконсервный, tobacco plants, confectionery factory, factories of liqueur-vodka, wine, beer, yeast, tea factory; light industry: textiles and fur factories, factories хлопкопрядильная, knitting, carpet, Shoe, sewing, printing and cotton combine. Heavy industry accounted for 33 % of production and is represented by the enterprises of heavy machine building, there are plants, electrical engineering, foundry, mechanical-repair and repair-bearing, construction materials, woodworking, metal-concrete constructions and construction details, house-building plant.

In 1997, the decree of the President of the Republic of Kazakhstan Nursultan Nazarbayev, the capital was moved to Akmola, six months later renamed into Astana. At the moment, Alma-ATA is a scientific, cultural, historical, industrial and financial center of the country. In Alma-ATA remains of the national Bank of Kazakhstan and certain embassies, other government institutions were transferred to Astana. July 1, 1998 was adopted the Law on the special status of the city. Alma-ATA is known informally as the «southern capital»[34].

In June 2007 the city was added to the list of the most expensive cities of the world for foreigners, once in thirty[35].

All the big problem for the citizens creates an increased many times the vehicle fleet of the city. In the summer of 2007, it was officially announced that in Alma-ATA registered 500 thousand units of motor transport. Becomes less days, when we can see from the town of snow-capped peaks. Often it is seen only dirty-yellow fog that covers the horizon. The manual is concerned with this problem, with great delay started construction of transport interchanges and Eastern обьездной road, efforts are being made for completion of the Soviet long lasting — the metro.

Since the late 1990s to mid-2008, the city experienced a period of economic and investment boom, as well as intensive construction[36].

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