[From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia]
Kirov (formerly named as Khlynov, Vyatka) is a city in Russia, administrative center of the Kirov region. It forms the municipal formation «the city of Kirov». Located on the river Vyatka, in 896 km from Moscow.
The population of the city — 478 thousand people, the population of mo d. Kirov — 502,6 thousand people (a score of 1 Jan. 2012), the population of the Kirov agglomeration is estimated at 750 thousand people.
Historical, cultural, industrial and scientific center of the Kirov region. The homeland of the Dymkovo toys. «Fur» and «peat» capital of Russia.
The first settlements on the territory of the present Kirov were formed expected 2,5 thousand years ago. In the 1st Millennium A.D. here were settled ancient пермяне, the ancestors of the Udmurt and Komi Republic. The main settlements were located along the banks of major rivers Caps, Моломы and Vyatka.
The Foundation. Vyatskaya Veche Republic
Main article: Vyatskaya Veche Republic
According to the local «the Story of the country Vyatka» (con. XVII century), the city was founded after the year 1181 the Novgorodians. By this time they have already established Никулицын and Kotelnich, and decided to create a single centre. The first mention of the city of Vyatka (or Vyatka) in the all-Russian annals dates back to 1374 year in connection with a campaign Novgorod ушкуйников on the main city of the Volga Bulgaria — Bulgars.
In the summer 6882 (1374) going non-at the bottom of the river Вяткою ушкунцы разбойницы, 90 ушкунцев, and грабиша Vyatka and go взяша Bulgarians
In 1378 year between вятчанами and Suzdal-Nizhny Novgorod Principality concluded a Treaty of Alliance, and with 1391, the city became the main residence of Suzdal princes Vasily Кирдяпы and Seeds Dmitrievich, expelled from Suzdal-Nizhny Novgorod Principality after the conquest of his Moscow. After the death of princes in 1401 year, the authority has passed to the army Prince Yuri Dmitrievich. Detachments vyatchan participated in campaigns against the Golden Horde (1392, 1409) in the war of the Moscow Prince Vasily I Novgorod (1417-1418 year).
In 1412 year was the famous battle between вятчанами and устюжанами. The battle took place at night, in the ravine, called later Раздерихинским. On one of versions, устюжане came to the aid of вятчанам for the defense of the Tatars, on the other, they are in Union with the Moscow princes wanted to capture the city. In memory of those events appeared Vyatsky folk festival «Mess», but on the side of the ravine was built a chapel in the name of Archangel Michael.
In 1432-1453 years Vyatka involved in the war between Galicians and Moscow princes; after the defeat of the Galician groups came under the control of local boyars and merchants. In 1455-1457 in the city built a wooden Kremlin, called Хлыновым. After two military campaigns of the Moscow troops against khlynova in 1457 and 1459 years of power in the city formally moved to Moscow, but with the preservation of local self-government. Participated in military campaigns of the Moscow Principality against Novgorod, and Kazan.
In the beginning of the 80-ies the power in the city passed to the separatists headed by John Аникеевым. When Khan Ibragim in Хлынове sat Kazan Governor. Хлыновские troops committed expeditions against the lands, which are under the authority of the Moscow Principality. After two unsuccessful attempts to Moscow army managed to capture the city in 1489. The local nobility was relocated to the suburbs, and the city put Moscow Governor. Vyatka land was finally included in the composition of the Moscow state.
Because of remoteness from major Russian lands Vyatka land is not needed in the Union with strong princedoms and recognize only the protection of the princes, while remaining a self-governing territory. As the main management body acted Narodnoye Veche. The most influential group of the feudal class were boyars, followed by merchants and clergy. The rest of the вятчане were free of community population, and consisted of peasants and craftsmen.
In 1551-1552 years хлыновские troops took part in the Russian army’s campaign against Kazan Tatars. In 1554 and 1556 years participated in campaigns against the Astrakhan khanate. As a result of these campaigns Хлынову were returned to their ancestral lands, captured earlier the Golden Horde.
2 June 1580 Khlynov received from Ivan the terrible letter on construction in the city of the monastery, named in honor of the hegumen, the founder Trifonov. In 1607 in Хлынове organized the first in Хлыновской the land of the fair, which has received the name of the Semyonovskaya, dedicated to the 1st of September. In 1658, is based Vyatka and Великопермская diocese with the center in the town of Хлынове. From 1680 and 1686 commander in Хлынове was the king’s steward Kuzma Osipovich Грушецкий, a cousin of the Queen of agathya Грушецкой. In 1689 built the Cathedral of the Dormition Trifonov monastery — one of the first stone buildings in Хлынове. In 1694 хлыновский merchant Spyridon Лянгузов held the first trading caravan from Moscow to China after the conclusion of the Russian-Chinese Treaty, разрешившего mutual trade.
In 1710, when the first division of Russia in the province of Khlynov together with Хлыновской land was included in the composition of the Siberian province, and the southern Хлыновские land were included in the Kazan province. In 1719, the province was divided into provinces, Хлыновская the earth has been transformed into independent province. In 1722-1723 years on the Хлыновской the land was held the first capitation census, in Хлынове there were 2276 shower.
In 1727 Хлыновская province has moved from the Siberian province in the composition of Kazan. December 18, 1780 by the decree of the Empress Catherine II founded Хлыновское vicegerency, soon transformed in the Vyatka province. The town of Khlynov was renamed to the city of Vyatka. may 28 (10 June), 1781 established the emblem of the city of Vyatka, compiled by the St. Petersburg герольдмейстером Volkov. In 1785, work began on the establishment of the city Duma in Vyatka. The first convening of the body of the city self-government — Vyatka city Duma took place on 26 August 1793.
In 1727 in Хлынове opened the first in the city elementary school at the Bishop’s house, in 1733 it was transformed into the Slavonic-Latin school, and in 1758 on its basis created first in Хлынове secondary school — Vyatskaya theological Seminary. on September 22, 1786 was the first openly-civil education institution, on the basis of which 21 November 1811 created Vyatskaya men’s gymnasium. In 1818 in the city was opened spiritual school, 8 September 1820 established school for the children of clerical, and on October 11, 1859, opened the woman’s College of the 1st grade — Vyatskaya female grammar school. on November 8, 1868, was founded the state College of agricultural and technical knowledge (from October 1, 1880 — real school). In 1874 in the workshops of Vyatka technical school production of fire-fighting vehicles, on their basis were established an iron foundry and mechanical plant (today the Kirov machine-tool plant). 1 July 1914, based Vyatsky teachers ‘ Institute.
From 1744 started to develop postal service, was the connection is established with Moscow, Kazan and Siberia. In 1783, in Vyatka for the leadership of postal Affairs was completed the construction of the building of the post office. on June 8, 1806 started the construction of the floating bridge over the river Vyatka, which was to link the the city with the outskirts Dymkovo. on March 11, 1861 in Vyatka teacher Лиховым was opened the first photo. on may 2 on the river Vyatka appeared the first steamship «Vyatka». Regular shipping traffic on the Vyatka began in 1874. on August 19, 1895, work began on the construction of Permsko-котласской the railway line (the first in the Vyatka), November 2, 1898, for it was the first train, and on 15 October 1906, was opened direct railway communication between Vyatka and Saint-Petersburg. on September 14, 1902 was the opening of the city telephone network. A private telephone network was created back in 1894. In 1906, in the city appeared the first car, which belonged to Kuzma Laptev. on July 20, 1911, the city appeared the first aircraft (under the control of A. Vasilieva).
15 April 1797, founded the oldest industrial enterprise of the town — the Gubernia (now the Regional printing house). In 1799, was opened the first private pharmacy in Vyatka. From December 15, 1809 started working state city pharmacy. 1 (13) of November 1862, the city opened the first public Bank Fyodor Veretennikova. In 1865 in Vyatka based Кожзавод, in 1873 — skinnery. Both companies were United in 1959, the leather-fur plant.
In 1802, at the house of invalids founded the first hospital for 10 beds. In June, 1811, in the city was opened the first provincial hospital with 60 beds. The first city hospital was opened in 1823. on July 7, 1857 in the city there was opened the first children’s shelter. 2 July 1870, opened the house of taking care of children of poor citizens.
on may 2, 1835, in the city founded one of the first in Russia, Vyatka province statistical Committee, engaged in studying of materials about the history and culture of the region. on August 30 of the same year in Vyatka open Alexandrovsky garden, the main elements of the architecture of which are made under the project of the artist and architect Alexander Vitberg. on may 18, 1837 in Vyatka the opening of the exhibition of natural and artificial works of Vyatka province, in the organization of which took part And. And. Herzen. 6 December with the direct participation of Russia in the city opened the first public library for reading (now Kirov regional library of them. A. And. Herzen street). January 1, 1838 in Vyatka started to be published the first newspaper of the region «Vyatka Gubernskie Vedomosti». on August 30, 1839 there has passed solemn ceremony of laying of the Alexander Nevsky Cathedral in the city on the project of an architect. L. Vitberg. on January 22, 1866, in the city opened the Museum of local lore, one of the oldest in Russia. on October 23, 1877, was opened city hall (now Kirov oblast drama theatre of a name With. M. Kirov). on April 9, 1894, the first issue of «Vyatka newspaper» (the first in Russia «Zemskaya Narodnaya Gazeta», created at an affordable price and content for the masses). In 1896, has created one of the first in Russia, Vyatka land agricultural experimental station (now the research Institute of agriculture of the North-East of them. Rudnitsky). on may 14, 1897, there was held the first movie. In 1908, opened the first cinema «Illusion», «Progress», «Modern», in 1910 — «Odeon», in 1913 — the «Coliseum». on April 1, 1932 shows the first sound film «the Golden mountain», the first color film «the Nightingale-Nightingale» — 26 September 1936. 30 April 1900, there was opened a free library-reading room of a name And. With. Pushkin (now the Central city library And. With. Pushkin). In 1909, built mosque. In 1912, was founded a Botanical garden. In 1916, founded the city library, which later received the name of Saltykov-Shchedrin.
In 1905, N. A. Чарушин organized the «Vyatsky democratic Union», which in 1906 merged with the people’s party of socialists. Autumn was marked by a strike in the Seminary in Vyatka. November 18, the authorities decided to close all educational institutions to prevent the expansion of the protest actions. on October 22 in Vyatka passed черносотенный pogrom, as a result 6 people were killed and 20 were injured. From 30 November to 2 December in Vyatka passed the provincial peasant Congress. From 8 to 18 December held a strike of railway workers Vyatka. 18 December there was an armed clash between the militia of the peasant Union of the soldiers. From October 1907 on February 1908 in Vyatka illegally lived the famous Ural экспроприатор Alexander of Foreheads. During a trip to Нолинск he, after intensive firing was arrested and in March returned to Vyatka. About one and a half months Lbov contained in Vyatka correctional арестантском office. on April 22, above him there was the court and on the night of may 2, 1908, he was executed in the courtyard of the Vyatka province prison. In January 1909, moving «a landmark order» to place links — city Сольвычегодску, And. Stalin fell ill with typhus and for some time was in the hospital in Vyatka.
The first official telegrams about the overthrow of the tsarist regime came to Vyatka on March 1, 1917. The Congress of the agrarian leaders, who worked at that time in the city, refused to recognize the new government. on March 2, the Governor of the N. A. Rudnev recognized the authority of the Provisional government. In the course of the month in local councils was the replacement of the socialist party of the Bolsheviks.
After the October revolution of the Board of the Supreme control of the province said on non-recognition of the Bolshevik government and on the allocation of the Vyatka province in the Autonomous Republic.
1 December Vyatsky the Council fully took power in the city in their hands (the Council of the Supreme control of the province and city Council — this is a different organization), and December 21, 1917 (January 3, 1918) was published first number of the newspaper «Vyatskaya Pravda» (1934 — «Kirov truth»).
By November 1918, in Vyatka and counties of the province of the Executive committees of the Councils were created departments of public education. Thus began the work on eradication of illiteracy, which in General was finished in 1929.
In January 1919, Vyatka with verification visited. In. Stalin and f. E. Dzerzhinsky, выяснившие that Vyatka with the government in Moscow communication has not, and 4467 of 4766 officials — the former Imperial officials. As a result of the work of the Commission on January 19, 1919 in Vyatka created the province of the Military-revolutionary Committee.
In 1923, the population of the city for the first time exceeded 50 thousand people and amounted to 52,3 thousand people.
In 1929, was the administrative-territorial reform, was liquidated by dividing the country into provinces, districts and civil parishes. Instead of them entered the provincial, regional and district branch. Vyatskaya province was dissolved, and its territory became a part of the Nizhny Novgorod region. The city of Vyatka became the first district, and then and the rayon center.
on may 15, 1929, railway workshops were transformed into a machine-building factory of name of «1st of May».
In July, 1930 the agricultural technical school was transformed into Zootechnologico-veterinary Institute. In the Institute were created two faculties — zoo-technical faculty (now the biological) and veterinary (now the faculty of veterinary medicine).
on may 1, 1934 in the city for the first time a regular public transport: to the streets out of the first 3 bus.
on December 5, 1934 in memory. M. Kirova the Presidium of the Central Executive Committee passed a decree on renaming the city of Vyatka in Kirov and education of the Kirov region, with a center in the city of Kirov.
In 1936, in connection with the adoption of the new Constitution, the Kirov region was transformed in the Kirov region, and Udmurt ASSR out of him; it led to a slight decrease of the status of the city — from the regional to the regional center.
In 1936 in Kirov began to work the professional children’s theatre. The Director of the play and th
On July 1938 in Kirov was 28 enterprises, 13 of them — Union and Republican significance, 7 — regional and 8 of local importance. It was the development of Handicrafts.
In 1939, according to the census of the population has grown sharply in the city of Kirov, for the first time came up to 150 thousand people and amounted to 142 thousand people.
In 1939, in Kirov decision of the Council of people’s Commissars of the USSR started the construction of the латунно-rolling plant (Kirov works in non-ferrous metal processing). In 1941, because of the outbreak of the great Patriotic war, the plant construction was suspended; it was resumed only two months after the end of the war.
In 1939 on the initiative of the people’s Commissariat of ammunition of the USSR in Kirov has started the design of the plant № 324 (now » Selmash»). At the enterprise it was planned to produce armor-piercing, полубронебойные and бетонобойные projectiles, fragmentation grenades and bombs.
In 1940, in Kirov building was constructed of wooden summer of state circus on the square of them. Article. Khalturina.
In 1940, Kirov city Executive Committee adopted a decision on the construction of a tram network (see. Kirov tram), developed and approved the first 6 routes, commissioning of the first line was to be held on November 1, 1941, but because of the outbreak of the great Patriotic war the construction stopped, already built the line was сочленена with railway branch or paved.
During the great Patriotic war in Kirov were evacuated large machine-building enterprises: plant them. Lepse plant them. Dzerzhinsky (now Lepse), plant № 537 (now lighthouse), plant № 32 (now Авитек), «the Red toolmaker», «Odessa plant of heavy crane-building companies», etc.
From 1942 to 1944, in Kirov was transferred from Leningrad naval medical Academy (now IV faculty of the Military-medical Academy. With. M. Kirov).
on June 23, 1943 launched into operation a plant № 324 (now » Selmash»).
In the night from 6 to 7 November 1943, was released the first batch of tyre model I-1 (34×7) for ZIS the newly built Kirov tire plant.
on November 7, 1943 in Kirov was opened regular trolleybus.
In 1944, Kirov zootechnologico-veterinary Institute was renamed the Kirov agricultural Institute, in connection with the opening of the agronomy faculty.
In 1944, at the initiative of the management of the plant them. Lepse in Kirov open Kirov aviation technical school, which became the main training institution for plant them. Lepse factory № 32 («Авитек»).
may 9, 1945, at the Theater square of Kirov passed the 50-strong rally on the occasion of the Victory Day. In the years of the great Patriotic war, military service carried more than 600 thousand inhabitants of the region, 257,9 thousands of them died.
In September 1945 by the decree of the Presidium of the Supreme Soviet of the USSR plant named after Lepse was awarded the order of Lenin.
on September 16, 1945 «for the fulfillment of the tasks set by the State Committee of Defense», factory № 32 (now Авитек) was awarded the order of red banner of Labor.
In 1945 the plant № 537 (now lighthouse) was awarded the order of Patriotic war of I degree for the uninterrupted supply of ammunition to the front.
In 1945 the plant № 324 got the task to organize the production of agricultural machinery with the change of name to «Selmash».
In 1956, the population of Kirov for the first time has exceeded 200 thousand people and amounted to 211 thousand people.
on January 12, 1956, the order of the Minister of ferrous metallurgy of Peter Фаддеевича Lomako «Kirov works in non-ferrous metals processing» was put into operation.
In the year 1957 was opened a branch of the ВЗЭИ, transformed later in «Kirov Polytechnic Institute».
on June 1, 1959 in the city of Kirov included village Коминтерновский.
In November 1959, the Executive Committee of the Kirov Council of deputies decided to accept the proposal on the organization of the Kirov planetarium in the building of St. Nicholas the over-gate Church (St. Gorbachev, 1). on December 20, 1960 in the planetarium was read the first lecture.
Since the late 50-ies. Of XX century, the plant № 32 (now Авитек) started to manufacture air-defense systems: special anti-aircraft missile complexes of a class «earth-air» for ground systems «Pechora», ADMS «OSA-AK», and ship systems «Wave», «Storm», ADMS «OSA-M». The plant mastered the production of all types of solid-fuel missiles near-and medium-range. At the same time the factory # 32 was given the new name — the Kirov machine-building plant named XX party Congress of the CPSU».
In the 1950s — 1960s in Kirov was completely built up with brick buildings and теплофицирован estate plant them. Lepse. All district roads were paved with asphalt. Completed construction of objects of social infrastructure — schools, kindergartens, and hospitals.
In 1962, in Kirov built the first bridge across the Vyatka. The bridge became the first permanent road, connecting the main part of the city with a large, up to this time, permanent posts were not.
In may 1966, Kirov tyre plant was awarded the Order of Labor red banner for the first development in the USSR of mass production of tires of a new design for trucks.
In 1967, the population of Kirov for the first time exceeded 300 thousand people and amounted to 309 thousand people.
Main article: An explosion and fire on a stadium «Labor reserves»
on may 25, 1968 in 20 minutes before the show took place almost at the same time two explosions under the main tribune of the stadium «Labor reserves», under which there were administrative building, in rooms of which has been stockpiled pyrotechnics. The stadium has had to go through a mass performance. Amaze viewers were preparing to mark Bernes, actors of the Stavropol theatre, Kirov schoolboys and students. In the final presentation of the promised a large pyrotechnic show. In total were sold more than 10 thousand tickets. For participation in the crowd were attracted more than a thousand of kirovers: children, military servicemen, etc. According to the official data, 35 people died and 82 were injured, of whom 72 — severe burns. Eyewitnesses of the tragedy claimed that the death toll was much greater. About an hour after the incident of «Voice of America» reported that in the «Kirov was a terrible tragedy…» still does not have a memorial, and the materials of the investigation secret.
In 1971, «for organization of production of new equipment» «Kirov machine-building plant named XX party Congress of the CPSU» (now Авитек) was awarded with the order «Sign of Honour». The enterprise became the leader on production of weapons for the military aviation of the country. At the plant organized the management of capital construction — management of capital construction, which is in fact and had built a later microdistricts «Филейка» and partially «OTSM». The factory bought their own transport aviation.
25 June 1974 for the successes, achieved кировчанами in economic and cultural construction, and in connection with the 600-th anniversary of the founding of the city of Kirov was awarded the order of red banner of Labor.
In 1975, at the Kirov plant for processing of non-ferrous metals put into operation the first and the only in the Soviet Union a shop for manufacture of precision (particularly precise) rolled, the relevant international standards.
In 1976, the Association of the name of Lepse was awarded the order of red banner of Labor.
on 23 December 1977, the opening ceremony of the new building of the Kirov circus. By the moment of end of building of the circus was equipped with modern equipment and can take any program: circus on ice, the circus on water.
on February 23, 1981, in the Kirov plant «Электробытприбор» was produced the first batch of one hundred and washing machines «Vyatka-machine-12», the model was a licensed copy of the washing machines of the Italian company Merloni Проджети (now Indesit).
In 1982, the population of Kirov amounted to 400 thousand people.
In 1989, the city of Novovyatsk included in the Kirov as Novovyatskiy urban area.