[From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia]
Shlisselburg (Russian: Шлиссельбург; IPA: [ʂlʲɪsʲɪlʲˈburk]; German: Schlüsselburg; Swedish: Nöteborg) is a town in Kirovsky District of Leningrad Oblast, Russia, located at the head of the Neva River on Lake Ladoga, 35 kilometers (22 mi) east of St. Petersburg. From 1944 to 1992, it was known as Petrokrepost. Population: 13,170 (2010 Census); 12,401 (2002 Census); 12,589 (1989 Census).
The town on the mainland opposite the island fortress was founded in 1702 by Peter the Great. It does not retain many historical buildings, apart from a handful of 18th-century churches. Perhaps the most remarkable landmark is the Old Ladoga Canal, started at the behest of Peter I in 1719 and completed under the guidance of Fieldmarshal Munnich twelve years later. The canal stretches for 104 versts; its granite sluices date from 1836.
In the course of the administrative reform carried out in 1708 by Peter the Great, Shlisselburg was included into Ingermanland Governorate (known since 1710 as Saint Petersburg Governorate). In 1727, it became a part of Saint Petersburgsky Uyezd, and in 1755, Shlisselburgsky Uyezd was established. In 1914, Saint Peterburgsky Uyezd was renamed Petrogradsky Uyezd. On Febryary 14, 1923 Shlisselburgsky Uyezd was merged into Petrogradsky Uyezd. In January, 1924 the uyezd was renamed Leningradsky. Saint Petersburg Governorate was twice renamed, to Petrograd Governorate and subsequently to Leningrad Governorate.
On August 1, 1927, the uyezds were abolished. Shlisselburg was subordinated to Leningrad City Soviet. On August 19, 1930 Leningradsky Prigorodny District, with the administrative center in Leningrad, was established. On August 19, 1936 the district was abolished, and Shlisselburg became the town of oblast significance.
During World War II, the town (not the fortress) was seized by Nazi Germany. The recapture of Shlisselburg in 1943 by Soviet forces reopened access to besieged Leningrad. Between 1944 and 1992, the town’s name was Russified as Petrokrepost (literally: «Fortress of Peter»). Shlisselburg regained its former name after the fall of the Soviet Union.
In 2010, the administrative division of Leningrad Oblast was harmonized with the municipal division, and Kirovsk was made the town of district significance, subordinated to Kirovsky District