[From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia]
Tuapse is a town in Krasnodar Krai, Russia, situated on the northeast shore of the Black Sea, south of Gelendzhik and north of Sochi. Population: 63,292 (2010 Census);64,238 (2002 Census); 63,081 (1989 Census)
Tuapse is a sea port and the northern center of a resort zone which extends south to Sochi.
Tuapse is a large center (native land) for the Shapsugs tribe with other areas in Circassia, with about 10,000 speakers of the language living in Tuapse. The name of the town is itself Adyghe (literally meaning «two waters») since Tuapse was part of historical Circassia and it became a part of Russia during the rule of Tsar Alexander I in 1801-1825. In early Greek sources the town was also attested as Topsida.
The modern settlement dates back to 1838, when the Russian fort of Velyaminovsky was established in the area after this region became a part of Russia in 1829 by Treaty of Adrianople. During the Crimean War, the Ottomans seized the fort and held it for two years (1857–1859). The village of Velyaminovskoye (Вельяминовское) was established here in 1864; it is the village that later became Tuapse. Town status was granted to Tuapse in 1896.
The Soviets developed Tuapse as an oil terminal and depot. An oil pipeline from Grozny and Maykop was in operation by 1928, designed by Vladimir Shukhov. An oil refinery dates from the same period. No later than 1941, Tuapse’s status was changed to that of a town of the krai subordination.
During World War II, the German military attempted to seize the town during the Battle of the Caucasus, which caused major damage to Tuapse.